Ɔbea awode sɛe
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Ɔbea awode sɛe, FGM, a wɔsan frɛ no ɔbea awode twitwa ne ɔbea twetiatwa, sɛnea Wiase Akwanhosan Ahyehyɛde (WHO) kyerɛ “akwan ahorow nyinaa a wɔfa so yi ɔbea awode anim fa bi anaa anim nyinaa anaa biribi foforo a ɛte saa a wɔyɛ ɔbea awode bere a ɛnyɛ aduruyɛ anaa ayaresa nti na wɔreyɛ saa.” Wɔyɛ FGM sɛ amammere ade wɔmmusuakuw wɔ aman aduonu asɔn mu Sahara anafo ne Afrika Atifi apuei, ne Asia, Apuei Mfinimfini ne atukɔfo mu wɔ mmeae afoforo. Mfe a obi bedi ansa na wɔayɛ no eyi gu ahorow, fi nna kakra wɔ awo akyi kosi bere a wafi bra ase; wɔ aman a wɔbɔ ho amaneɛ no, emu fa kyere sɛ emu dodow no ara na wɔde yɛ mmea a wonnii mfe anum.
Ɔkwan a wɔfa so yɛ eyi no gu ahorow, na egyina abusuakuw no so. Nea ɛka eyi ho ne yi a woyi(fa bi anaa ne nyinaa ɔbea awode ano ne awode ano nkataso awode no ano nyinaa anaa ne fa bi ne awode no anim; na nea ɛkɔ akyiri mu no infibulation ne nyinaa anaa ne fa bi ne awode anim ne n’ase a wɔkata ani. Wɔ ɔkwan a etwa to yi mu, a WHO frɛ no Type III FGM, wogya tokuru ketewa na ama ɔbea no atumi adwensɔ na wayɛ bra, na wobue n’ase tokuru no mu na ama ɔne barima atumi ahyia na wawo nso. Akwanhosan ho nsunsuanso gyina ɔkwan a wɔfaa so yɛe no so ebi ne nyarewa a ɛba bere ne bere mu, ɛyaw a ano yɛ den, kotoku a ahyɛ nsu, nyinsɛn a ɛmma, awo mu ɔhaw ahorow ne mogyatu.
Adeyɛ yi ase fi bɔbeasu ho nhwehwɛanim, mmɔden a wɔbɔ sɛ wɔbɛhyɛ mmea so, ne nsusuwii a ɛfa krɔnnyɛ, ahobrɛase ne hwɛbea. Mpɛn pii no mmea na wɔtaa yɛ, na wobu no sɛ ɛma nidi, na wosuro sɛ sɛ wɔamma wɔn mmabea ne wɔn nananom anyɛ a, ɛbɛma mmea no ahyia ankonamyɛ wɔ mpɔtam hɔ. Mmea bɛboro ɔpepem ɔha aduasa na wɔayɛ wɔn FGM yi bi wɔ aman aduonu akrɔn a ɛrekɔ so wom no mu. Nnipa bɛboro ɔpepem awotwe na wɔatwa wɔn twetia yi, na wohu eyi titiriw wɔ Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia ne Sudan.
Wɔabara anaasɛ wɔde anohyeto ato FGM so wɔ aman a ɛrekɔ so wom pii mu, nanso mmara ahorow no nnyɛ adwuma. Amanaman abɔ mmɔden fi 1970 mfe no mu sɛ wɔbɛma nkurɔfo agyae adeyɛ yi, na wɔ afe 2012 mu no Amanaman Nkabom Nhyiam Kɛse, sii gyinae sɛ FGM yɛ obi fahodi a wɔsɔre tia. Ebinom kasa tia sɔre a wɔsɔre tia adeyɛ yi, ne titiriw nnipa abakɔsɛm animdefo.Eric Silverman kyerɛw sɛ FGM abɛyɛ asɛm titiriw a nnipa abakɔsɛm nhwehwɛmufo de wɔn adwene asi so, na ɛma nsɛntitiriw binom sɔre faamammere a egu ahorow, afoforo nneyɛe a wɔma ho kwan ne nnipa fahodi ho mmara a wɔma ɛfa obiara ho no.
Nsεm afoforo[sesa | edit source]
- "Classification of female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, 2013 (hereafter WHO 2013).
- UNICEF 2013, p. 2
- UNICEF 2013, pp. 47, 50, 183.
- WHO 2013; WHO 2008, p. 4
- Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011 (review).
- UNICEF 2013, p. 15: "There is a social obligation to conform to the practice and a widespread belief that if they [families] do not, they are likely to pay a price that could include social exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or the inability to find their daughters suitable marriage partners."
Nahid F. Toubia, Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261: "One of the great achievements of the past decade in the field of FGM is the shift in emphasis from the concern over the harmful physical effects it causes to understanding this act as a social phenomenon resulting from a gender definition of women's roles, in particular their sexual and reproductive roles. This shift in emphasis has helped redefine the issues from a clinical disease model (hence the terminology of eradication prevalent in the literature) to a problem resulting from the use of culture to protect social dominance over women's bodies by the patriarchal hierarchy. Understanding the operative mechanisms of patriarchal dominance must also include understanding how women, particularly older married women, are important keepers of that social hegemony." Nhwɛsode:PMID Nhwɛsode:Doi
- Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: What Might the Future Hold?, New York: UNICEF, 22 July 2014 (hereafter UNICEF 2014), p. 3/6: "If nothing is done, the number of girls and women affected will grow from 133 million today to 325 million in 2050." Also see p. 6/6:
"Data sources: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other nationally representative surveys, 1997–2013. Population data are from: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 revision, CD-ROM edition, United Nations, New York, 2013.
"Notes: Data presented in this brochure cover the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and for which nationally representative data are available."
- P. Stanley Yoder, Shane Khan, "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total", USAID, DHS Working Papers, No. 39, March 2008, pp. 13–14: "Infibulation is practiced largely in countries located in northeastern Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Survey data are available for Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Sudan alone accounts for about 3.5 million of the women. ... [T]he estimate of the total number of women infibulated in [Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania, for women 15–49 years old] comes to 8,245,449, or just over eight million women." Also see Appendix B, Table 2 ("Types of FGC"), p. 19.
UNICEF 2013, p. 182, identifies "sewn closed" as most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia for the 15–49 age group (a survey in 2000 in Sudan was not included in the figures), and for the daughters of that age group it is most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Niger and Somalia. See UNICEF statistical profiles: Djibouti (December 2013), Eritrea (July 2014), Somalia (December 2013).
Also see Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996 (pp. 999–1017), p. 1002: "Infibulation, the harshest practice, occurs contiguously in Egyptian Nubia, the Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, also known as Islamic Northeast Africa."
- For countries in which it is outlawed or restricted, UNICEF 2013, p. 8; for enforcement, UNFPA–UNICEF 2012, p. 48.
- "67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation", United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December 2012.
Emma Bonino, "Banning Female Genital Mutilation", The New York Times, 19 December 2012.
- Eric K. Silverman, "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004 (pp. 419–445), pp. 420, 427.