Adwamammɔ

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Paolo ne Francesca, a Dante's <i id="mwEA">Inferno</i> kyerɛɛ se ɔyɛ adwamanfo akukudm. (Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1819)

Adwamammɔ yɛ nna mu kyɛfa nnipa mienu a wɔnwaree de wɔn ho hyɛ mu[1][2]. Sɛ wɔn a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ saa adeyɔ yi mu yɛ awarefoɔ a, yɛfrɛ no awaresɛi. Nanso, John Calvin huu nna mu ɔbrasei sɛ, nna mu kyɛfa biara a ɛnfa mmara kwan so, a adwamammɔ nso ka ho bi[3].

Wɔ nnipa pii fam no, asɛmfua no yɛ nea ɛfa abrabɔpa anaa nyamesom akyiwade ho, nanso nna mu kyɛfa a saa asɛmfua yi kyerɛ no yɛ nea nsonsonoeɛ da mu wɔ sɛnea anyamesomkuo, mmusuakuo ne ammamere ahorɔw te ase. wɔ nnɛmafo mu no, wɔde nsɛmfua te sɛ nna a edi awareɛ anim anaa nna mu ɔbrasei asi anan mu.

Farebae[sesa | edit source]

Wɔ Hella Kyerɛwnsɛm a ɛwɔ kane Greek kasa mu no, asɛmfua a ɛne porneia (πορνεία - ''Adwamanbo) no puei mpen 25 (a wɔde asɛmfua πορνεία no gyina ho ma Adwmammɔ no[4].


Wɔ afeha a ɛtɔ so nnan no mu no, Latin Vulgate a ɛyɛ Latin nkyerɛase nhoma a ɛkyerɛ Greek nsɛmfua ase no kyerɛ asɛmfua no ase sɛ fornicati, fornicatus, fornicata, ne fornicatae. Asemfua Adwammo ne adwamanbofo ye nea epuei wɔ afe 1599 Geneva Kyerewnsem mu, afe 1611 kyrewnsem a ɛne King James no mu, Catholic Rheims Kyerɛwnsɛm ne 1901 kyerɛwnsɛm a ɛde American Standard Version no mu[5][6]. Kyerɛwnsɛm ahorɔw a ɛbaa wɔ wiase ko a ɛtɔ so mienu no akyi no yɛ nea w'akati asɛmfua a ɛne Adwamammo ne adwamammɔfo. Kyerɛwnsɛm a ɛne English Standard Version, New Living Translation, New International Version, Christian Standard Bible, Good News Bible and Contemporary English Version yɛ nea wɔnfa asɛmfua adwamammɔ anaa adwmammɔfo nni dwuma[7]. Sɛ nkyerɛase baako de asɛmfua Adwammɔ di dwuma no, nkyerɛase foforo de asɛmfua a te sɛ nna mu ɔbrasei (Nhwɛso wɔ Mateo 19;9), anaa tiawa no, wɔ ɔbrasei di dwuma[8][9][10].

Wɔ Latin kasa mu no, asɛmfua a ɛne Fornix no kyerɛ kankofa[11]. Wɔ tete Rome no, adwamanfoɔ yɛ nea wɔtwɛn adwadifoɔ no wɔ kankofa no ase senea nsuo nhwe wɔn, na ɛno na ɛmaa asɛmfua kankofa no begyinaa hɔ maa tuutuudan anaa agyantrafoɔfie[12][13][14], na Latin asɛmfua a ɛne fonicare no gyina hɔ ma ɔbirima a ɔkɔ agyantrafoɔfie. Kyerɛwtohɔ a edikan wɔ Brɔfo kasa no mu yɛ nea ɛwɔ Cursor Mundi, c. 1300; Nnwoma a ɛde Oxford Dictionary no nso de sɛnea wɔde ne kasakoa di dwuma;[15][16]

Abakɔsɛm,amammerɛ, ne mmara[sesa | edit source]

Nhwehwɛmu a adwumakuo a wɔn din de American Sociological Review yɛe wɔ afe 2000 ne 2008 ntam wɔ aman 31 a afei na wɔrenya mpontuo no kyerɛ sɛ, Jewfoɔ mu ɔha mu nkyekyɛmu 94 na anya nna a edi awareɛ anim mu kyefa, Akristofoɔ a w'anya nna a edi awareɛ anim mu kyɛfa no dodoɔ nso yɛ ɔha mu nkyekyɛmu 79, Buddhafoɔ yɛ ɔha mu nkyekyɛmu 65, Nkramofoɔ yɛ ɔha mu nkyekyɛmu 43 na afei Hindufoɔ yɛ ɔha mu nkyekyemu 19[17].

Roman Aheman[sesa | edit source]

Wɔ afeha a ɛtɔ so nsia no mu no, ɔhempɔn a ɔde Justinian hyehyɛɛ mmara bi na ɛbɛyɛ ɔkwan a w'agye atom sɛ ɔkwan wɔfa so de hyehyɛ awareɛ wɔ afe apem a ɛbae yi mu.Wɔ saa mmara no ase no, nnipa meinu a wɔte bomu nanso wɔnfaa mmara kwan so no nyɛ nea wohu wɔn sɛ awarefoɔ na wohu wɔn mma nso sɛ wɔmfata, na wohu wɔn te sɛ nea wohu atuutuufoɔ mma. Nanso, sɛ awofoɔ no ware a, wɔn mma no gyinapɛn sesa bɛyɛ nea mmara no gye to mu[18].

Britain Aheman[sesa | edit source]

Wɔ afe 1170 no mu, ''na ɛyɛ nea abu so sɛ nnipa mienu bɛtena abom sɛ ɔyere ne okunu wɔ bre a wɔnwaree[19], na afei nso anuanom a wɔ ware wɔn ho no nso yɛ nea ɛkɔɔ so'', na afei nso na ɛnyɛ aniwaude wɔ kane England sɛ obi bɛyɛ adwaman ba[20]. Sɛ nhwɛsoɔ no, akwanya a na , William the Conqueror wɔ sɛ odi ade wɔ Normandy no anhyia akwansideɛ biara a ɛnfa ho sɛ na ɔyɛ adwaman ba, na akasakasaa ɛkɔɔ ɔne Harold Godwinson ntam no nanso anyɛ akwnside wɔ nea ɔfata sɛ odi England so. Nanso afoforɔ nneyɛe de fa adwaman mma ho ma no bɛyɛɛ den sɛ adwaman mma bedi ade wɔ England[21] .

Bre a Puritan bedii adeɛ no, ekuo a ɛne English Council of State de mmara a ɛbra akyiwade te sɛ mmogyafra, awareɛ akyi adwamammɔ, adwamammɔ ase bae wɔ afe 1650 mu[22]. Wɔ bre a w'ato din Resotoration wɔ afe 1660 mu no, wogyaa mmara no too hɔ a w'amfa andi dwuma biom na wogyae sɛ wɔde kwaadu bɔ adwamammɔfo. ɛmfa ho saa no , abrabɔ bɔne a wɔyɛ no wɔ nnipa mu no kɔɔ so yɛ nea etia mmara nonso, sɛ obi bɔ adwaman wɔ kokoa mu a, entia mmara[23].

Ansa na wɔde mmara a ɛde Marriage Act 1753 bɛhyehyɛ so no, na mmara a etia adawaman mma yɛ ade ɛkɔɔ so katee wɔ afe 1730 ne 1740 mu ho[24].

Wɔ Victorian bre so no, adwumayɛfo kuo kɔɔ so nyaa adwene soronko fa nna ho firi wɔn a wɔn niimdeɛ akɔ nkan no hɔ. Nna a edi awareɛ anim no yɛ nea adwumuyɛkuo no gye tom wɔ bre a nnipa mienu no anante akyɛ kakra. Na baanu no yɛ nea wɔɔyɛ nhyehyɛe fa awareɛ ho. Sɛ ɔbaa no nyensɛn na sɛ awareɛ no amma so a, ɛde aniguase ba[25][26].

United States[sesa | edit source]

Nsɛm ɛsɔre wɔ nnipa w'adu wɔn mpanyin mfie so a ɛfa nna mu nso yɛ nea wohu no sɛ ɛyɛ ankorɛnkorɛ gyinaesie nti, wɔnhu no sɛ ɛho nhia sɛ wɔde kwaadu bɛbɔ obi denam saa adeyɔ no ho. Saa mmara yi yɛ nea United State nyaa firii United kingdom hɔ[27]. Akyire, mmeae ahorɔw 16 a wɔn wɔ Atifi ne Atɔe fam wɔ United States, a Wisconsin ne Utah ka ho no, yɔ nea wɔhyehyɛɛ mmara a ɛbra adwamammɔ (ɛtwɛ) nna mu kyɛfa a ɛfa baanu a wɔnwaree ho[28][29]. Saa mmara yi mu dodoɔ no ara yɛ nea asɛnndibea a ɛwɔ aman ahorɔw so kyerɛ sɛ etia wɔn amanmmara ma nti w'atam. San nso hwɛ State v. Saunders, 381 A.2d 333 (N.J. 1977), Martin v. Ziherl, 607 S.E.2d 367 (Va. 2005). ɛde besi March 2020 mu no, na mantam a wɔn mmara bra adwamammɔ no yɛ Idaho ne Mississippi, a na North Carolina nso mmara kakra na ɛka ho asɛm sɛ ''Sɛ ɔbararima ne ɔbaa a wɔnwree nya nna mu anyɔnkofa na wɔtena bom sɛ awarefoɔ a, w'afom mmara nanso bɔne ketewa bi[30].

Bre a na wɔkyerɛkyerɛ bɔne kɛseɛ mmara a ɛfa fa a obi bɛfa obi to no mu no, mmara no ka adwamammɔ fa bi.Nanso bre a Asɛnnibea kunini a ɛwɔ US de ne gyinaesie a ɛfa Lawrence v. Texas (2003) no kae sɛ mmara no bi a ɛfa obi to a obi afa no yɛ nea ɔman no ntumi mfa nyɛ adwuma. Nnipa pii kyerɛ sɛ gyinae a efii Lawrence V. Texas mu bae no yɛ nea abetwa mmara a ɛfa adwamammɔ no mu; gyanaesie no twaa mmara a ɛbra fa a obi bɛfa obi to no mu, wɔkaa sɛ saa adeyɔ no ye ankorɛankorɛ ne kokoa mu adeyɛ ma nti mmara a ɛfa ho no tia amammara ɛwɔ United States.

Australia[sesa | edit source]

Nhwehwɛmu a wɔyɛɛ no wɔ afe 2003 mo no kyerɛ sɛ wɔn a wonnyɛ anyamesomfoɔ wɔ Australia no dwen sɛ nna a edi awareɛ anim no yɛ nea ɛfata. ɛdaa adi sɛ, abusuabɔ da nhomasua, gyedie, wɔn a wonni anyamesom mu gyedie ne sɛnea wɔgye nna a edi awaree anim no tom.

Nkramoman Ahorɔw[sesa | edit source]

Wɔ Nkramoman bi so te sɛ Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Kuwait, Maldives, Morocco, Oman, Mauritania, Qatar, Sudan ne Yemen mu no, nna mu nkitaho biara enfa awaree kwan so no tia mmara.

Zina (nna edi aware anim) ne adwamammɔ yɛ nea etia nkramosom kɔkɔɔkɔ, esiane sɛ saa nneyɛe de mmofra a wonnim won awofo na ɛba, na saa nneyɛe no nso sɛi botae a ɛtaa abusuasɛm no ho. Nkramosom si Abusua so dua paa na wɔ hyɛ sɛ mmɔfra nhwɛ wɔn awofo. Asotwe a ɛkɔ ma Zina wɔ nkramosom mu no yɛ abosie a wosi wɔn a w'awaree ne mmaabɔ a wɔbɔ wɔn a wɔnwaree. Ansa na saa asotwe yi bɛyɛ adwuma no, ɛwɔ sɛ wonnya nnipa nnan sɛ adansefo a wɔbebɔ amane, ɛnte saa a, ɛsɛ sɛ nea ɔbɔ soboɔ no yɛ okunu a ne botae ne sɛ ɔbɔ ne yere soboɔ. Sɛ wodi saa ahwehwɛdeɛ yi so pepɛɛpɛ a, wɔn a mmara ma wɔn kwan sɛ wosi aboɔ no yɛ saa.

Ntotoho[sesa | edit source]

  1. Definition of fornication - Merriam-Webster's Student Dictionary (wordcentral.com)
  2. Fornication - definition of fornication by The Free Dictionary
  3. Exodus 20 - Calvin's Commentary on the Bible - Bible Commentaries - StudyLight.org
  4. Strong's Greek: 4202. πορνεία (porneia) -- 25 Occurrences (biblehub.com)
  5. Matthew 5:32 - Wikipedia
  6. 1 Corinthians 6.9 fornicators in GNV, KJV, DRA
  7. SQL database search for terms fornication or fornicators in respective Bible Translations.
  8. The English Standard Version : Christian Courier
  9. Porneia Meaning in Bible - New Testament Greek Lexicon - King James Version (biblestudytools.com)
  10. 1 Corinthians 6.9 RSV (immoral) vs KJV (fornicators)
  11. Internet Archive: Error
  12. Ancient Rome in So Many Words - Christopher Francese - Google Books
  13. The Merriam-Webster new book of word histories : Merriam-Webster, Inc : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
  14. Oxford English Dictionary - Wikipedia
  15. Oxford English Dictionary - Wikipedia
  16. Oxford English Dictionary - Wikipedia
  17. On sex, Muslims and Hindus practice what they preach | The Christian Century
  18. SameSexPartnership_DocComm-English.doc (live.com)
  19. Gerald of Wales: Patriotic Welshman or arrogant agent of English imperialism? - Wales Online
  20. The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (archive.org)
  21. BBC Four - Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death, A Good Birth
  22. May 1650: An Act for suppressing the detestable sins of Incest, Adultery and Fornication. | British History Online (british-history.ac.uk)
  23. The New International Encyclopedia - Wikipedia
  24. https://www.workhouses.org.uk/poorlaws/oldpoorlaw.shtml
  25. Promises Broken: Courtship, Class, and Gender in Victorian England - Ginger S. Frost, Ginger Suzanne Frost - Google Books
  26. Victorian England (archive.org)
  27. Jim Thompson, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Nov.–Dec. 1958), pp. 350–356
  28. Jim Thompson, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Nov.–Dec. 1958), pp. 350–356, 353
  29. http://le.utah.gov/xcode/Title76/Chapter7/76-7-S104.html?v=C76-7-S104_1800010118000101
  30. Virginia Repeals Law Banning Sex Before Marriage | Best States | US News