Atiridii

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Atiridii yɛ yare bi a ɛfa ntomtom so na ɛba, na etumi kyere nnipa ne mmoa afoforo a nea ɛde ba ne mmoa nketenkete bi a wɔfrɛ wɔn protozoans.[1] Atiridii kyere obi a, onii no ho yɛ hyew, ɔte nka sɛ w'abrɛ, ɔfefe, anaa onya tipae. Sɛ ɛmu yɛ den a, ɛbetumi ama nea wɔfrɛ no Jaundice, twitwahwe, ne owu mpo.[2] Yare no name ntomtom ka so na ɛba, na efi ase fi bɛyɛ nna du kosi nna dunnum. Sɛ obi nya Atiridii na woansa ne ho yare yiye a, ebetumi asan aba biom bere kɔ so no[1] Sɛ obi nyaa bi na ɛnkyɛe a, sɛ Atiridii no kye no a, ano renyɛ den te sɛ kan no. Sɛ obi nyaa Atiridii no akyɛ de a, sɛ ebi kye no a, emu betumi ayɛ den paa.[2]

Nea ɛbɛboa na obi ntumi nya saa yare yi ɛne sɛ ɔbɛda ntontom adan mu, ɔde nku a ɛpam ntontom bɛsra, ne akwan ahorow so te sɛ, ntontom aduru a wɔde bɛpete wɔn dan mu na woato nsunsu a ɛtataa mmeae a ɛbenbɛn.[2] Nnuru pii wɔhɔ a ɛboa ma obi nya atiridii wɔ mmeae a abu so mpo. Nnuru bi te sɛ sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine yɛ ma mmofra nkumaa ne afei apenfo a wonyinsɛn nkyɛe pii. Ɛnfa ho mmɔden biara no, wontumi nyaa atiridii ano aduro koro pɛ a ɛbɛma obi ntumi nya saa yare no. [1] Ɔkwan a ɛfata paa a obi bɛfa so asa ne ho yare ne sɛ ɔbɛnom atiridii-kotia nnuru a ebi ne artemisinin.[1][2] Aduru a ɛtɔ so mmienu bi ne mefloɛuine, lumefantrine, anaa sulfaxoxine/pyrimethamine.[3] Quinine nso sɛ wode ka doɔycycline ho a, wobetumi de asi artemisinin anan mu.[3] Ɛho hia paa sɛ, wɔ mmeae a atiridii tumi nya nkurɔfo paa no, wobɛbɔ mmɔden sɛ wobɛhwɛ sɛ ɛyɛ ampa sɛ atiridii na akye onipa bi, ansa na woama no nnuru, efisɛ, atiridii mmoawa no aso ayɛ den na mpo, ebi wɔ hɔ a, aduru biara kɛkɛ ntumi wɔn. Mmeae bi te sɛ Southeast Asia no, atiridii aduru te sɛ artemisinin mpo nyɛ adwuma sɛ mpo obi nom a.[1]

Nea Ɛma yehu sɛ obi anya atiridii[sesa | edit source]

Main symptoms of malaria[1]

Neɛ ɛma obi hu sɛ woanya atiridii no tumi fi ase bɛyɛ nna 8-25 ntam;[4] nanso, ebetumi ayi ne ho adi akyiri wɔ wɔn a wɔtaa fa nnuru a wode si atiridii ano kwan no.[5] Sɛ ɛrefi ase a, ɛda ne ho adi te sɛ obi a woanya ti yare na ne hwene mu fi nsu;,[6] na mpo ebetumi asɛ yare ahorow te sɛ septicemia, gastroenteritis, and viral diseases.[5] Emu bi ne, tipae, ahowosow, apɔwsoapɔwso yaw, afefe, mogya so tew, ne how yɛ hyew, ne ade tɔ obi so[7]

Ade biako a wɔde hyɛ no nsow sɛ obi anya atiridii ne sɛ ne ho yɛ hyew prɛko pɛ, a ahopopo di akyiri. Afei ɔte nka sɛ ahuhuro de no. 

Eyi betumi asi, sɛ onii no atiridii mu yɛ den paa a, ebia nna kakra akyi
[2]

Nsunsuanso[sesa | edit source]

Atiridii ho nsunsuanso nyɛ koraa. Neɛ ɛka ho bi ne obi home a ɛho ba asɛm. Eyi tumi si wɔ mpanyinfo bɛyɛ ɔha mu nkyem 25, ne wɔ mmofra mu no, ɔha mu nkyem 40.

Atiridii wɔ abaatan mu ka ho bi na apenfo tumi pɔn wɔn mma wɔ awo mu, anaa mmofra no wu wɔ wɔn wo akyi pɛɛ, anaa mpo nyinsɛn a ɛsɛe, anaa mmofra a wɔbɛwo wɔn na wosua.

Sɛnea wobɛkwati Atiridii[sesa | edit source]

Ntontom a wɔfrɛ no Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.

Akwan ahorow a wobetumi afa so akwati atiridii ne aduru a wobɛnom so, na woatwe wo ho afi ntontom a wɔbɛka wo so. Wɔnni aduru biara a wonom a ɛremma wonya atiridii. Sɛ nnipa bebree te baabi a, etumi ma ntontom dɔɔso, na ɛno tumi ma atiridii tumi nya nkɔanim. Sɛ obi wɔ yare yi bi a, na ntontom ka no a, na woagye atiridii no afi onii no hɔ de akɔma obi foforo. Sɛ wotumi kwati saa nneɛma yi a, ɛbɛma kakrakakra, atiridii ase atu afi America atifi fam, Europa, ne Apue Mfimfini mmeae bi. Nanso agye sɛ wotu atiridii mmoawa no fi wiase nyinaa, ɛnte saa, ɛbere kɔ so no, ɛbɛsan aba biom. Wɔ mmea bi a nnipa akyere so no, ɛbɛyɛ den sɛ wobetu atiridii ase efisɛ wɔ bere a nnipa redɔɔso wɔ baabi no, na ɛrema atiridii ase tu ayɛ den.

Sɛ obi bɔ ne ho ban fi atiridii ho a, saa yɛ sen sɛ obi bɛko atia atiridii no wɔ bere a woanya bi. Nea ehia kɛse no bi ne sɛ wɔbɛtrɛw mu adu akyiri wɔ mmeae a ohia abu so wɔ hɔ. There is a wide difference in the costs of control (i.e. maintenance of low endemicity) and elimination programs between countries.

Wɔ mmeae a atiridii wɔ no, mmofra a wonnuu mfe anum mogya so taa tew, asiane atiridii yare no nti. Sɛ wɔma mmofra a wɔwɔ mmeae a ɛte saa no nnuru a ɛboa ma wonya mogya a, ɛnkyɛ na wɔn ho ayɛ den, na ɛboa ma ɛho renhia sɛ wode oyarefo no bɛkɔ ayeresabea mpo.

Mosquito control[sesa | edit source]

Owura bi spray kerosene oil wɔ nsu bi a ɛtaa Panama Canal Zone wɔ 1912 mu

Ade biako a wɔde tew atiridii yare no so ne sɛ wosi kwan ma ntomtom no bɛkɔ so ayɛ bebree. Obi pɛ sɛ ɔbɔ ne ho ban a, wotum ne aduru bi a wɔfrɛ no DEET anaa picaridin di dwuma. Ntoma a wɔda mu na ɛbɔ obi ho ban wɔ atiridii ho ne ɔkwan biako na wɔkyerɛ sɛ ɛbɔ adwuma paa. Obi nya atiridii pɛ, na wohu sɛ woanya bi a, aduru a wɔfrɛ no artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) tumi boa nso.

Ntomtom net a woayɛ a obi bɛda mu.

Ntomtom net boa pam ntomtom fi nnipa ho, bere a wɔada no. Wɔtaa hyɛ saa net yi aduru, sɛnea sɛ ntomtom no ho ka pɛ a, na akum no. Nea wɔahyɛ no aduro no, wɔkyerɛ sɛ ɛso wɔ mfaso mpɛn abien sen nea enni bi no. Wɔ afe 2000 kosi 2008 mfe mu no, wɔkyerɛ sɛ ntomtom ntama a woahyɛ no aduru no gyee mmofra bɛboro 250,000 wɔ Africa Atɔe fam nkoaa.  Mfie ɔha mu nkyem dummiensa biara wɔ ntomtom ntama a woahyɛ no aduru no bi wɔ Africa Atɔe fam, sɛ wɔbɛka a. 


Amaneɛbɔ pii kyerɛ sɛ, nɛa wɔahyɛ no aduru no di boa pii wɔ ntomtom a obi bɔ ne ho ban fi ho no.
  1. Fairhurst RM, Wellems TE (2010).
  2. Ferri FF (2009).